数字营销看起来非常高科技和机器化，而且绝对会让人感到不知所措. At its core, though, digital marketing 就像人类的关系一样吗. 这就是你的生意，对吧? The people you are serving. 数字营销就是找到这些人的方法, 然后把这些陌生人培养成自然的, organic friendship. 这就是欧博体育首页所说的"买家之旅". 如果处理得当，这将是一段持久的友谊.
理解这种关系也许是营销中最重要的部分. Behavioral scientist Desmond Morris 发现人类的亲密关系有12个阶段. Morris found that those couples who followed these 12 stages typically maintained strong long term relationships. Generally, 如果一次跳过两个或多个阶段(甚至只有一个), 视情况而定), well, that is typically considered assault (resulting in an unsuccessful short term relationship, 有明显的长期负面影响).
Building Healthy Relationships
长久健康的关系没有捷径可走. Unfortunately, that is exactly what many companies are figuratively doing with their marketing – taking shortcuts, committing marketing assault. 这不仅伤害了你的潜在客户，也损害了你的品牌.
As we said before, digital marketing should be treated as a human relationship. Your goal as a marketer is to figuratively guide your audience through the Buyer’s Journey. 这种关系意味着要提供正确的 content在正确的时间，给正确的人. 正是在这个过程中，许多公司失败了.
5 Stages of Human Intimacy
- Eye to body. You notice the person. 对于营销人员来说，这就是确定你的目标市场.
- Eye to eye. Your eyes meet. You notice each other. 对于营销人员来说，这是第一个接触点. They are now aware of you.
- Voice to voice. 你来回打电话、发短信、发邮件. 你们的关系开始发展. 这个阶段，即许可阶段，应该持续最久.
- Hand to hand. You hold hands. At this point, 他们对你有足够的信任，可以让你出价, and they purchase your product.
- Hand to shoulder. 你把手臂搭在他们的肩膀上. 这会让你们的关系更加公开. This is the ambassador stage. At this point, the customer has purchased your product or service and is publicly endorsing your brand.
The Marketing Funnel
Knowing this, it is imperative to understand what type of marketing assets to send to whom and when, and how to send it to them. Broadly, we can separate our audiences into three segments: Cold, Warm and Hot. 在欧博体育首页谈论线索之前，你可能听过这些术语的使用. Essentially, the marketing funnel is a way to walk potential customers through your Buyer’s Journey.
In Funnel terms, our cold audiences (strangers that we think might be interested in us) are placed at the Top Of The Funnel, or as we like to say TOFU.
Our warmer audiences, (those whom we have engaged with a few times and they have so far chosen to stick around) are pooled into the Middle of The Funnel (MOFU) and our
Hot audience (the folks ready to give you their money and tell the world about you) we place in the Bottom of The Funnel (BOFU).
The Buyer’s Journey
Let’s break this down: 你的目标是找到那些需要或想要你的产品/欧博体育首页的人. 在买方之旅的开始, the cold audience member might not even be aware that they need or want your product. However, 你已经通过兴趣获取了足够的数据, behaviors, and demographics, that you have a highly educated assumption that this person most likely has a problem that you can solve. 这是你确定目标受众的第一阶段.
确定你的目标受众时, 你想要超越普通的人口统计数据，比如年龄, gender, and location. What are they interested in? What are they reading? Who do they follow? What events do they attend? 他们在生活中试图解决的问题是什么?
You want to ask as many questions as possible to narrow down as best you can, 你想要的最终用户在哪里. 如果这个阶段被误解, 整个客户旅程都受到影响, as you will be presenting a solution to a group of people that simply don’t have a need for your solution. 送一块是一回事 content 在买家之旅的错误阶段. That can be healed. It is a complete loss, however, if you send paid media to a cold audience that isn’t even interested in your product or service.
在您确定了所需的最终用户之后, 你的第一个任务是让他们意识到他们有需求或想要的东西. The main point is to gather their attention in a way that isn’t intrusive or violating, 而是在他们所在的地方遇见他们. 这可以通过各种意识策略来实现(social media, remarketing, website, etc). Remember at this stage, they don’t know you, 他们甚至没有意识到他们一定有问题, let alone need a solution. But, we need to get in front of them, and we need to begin the conversation that maybe there is something missing in their life. 这就是欧博体育首页的客户头像研究的切入点. 欧博体育首页知道，在一个计算范围内，他们的利益是什么.
打动冷漠听众的最好方法就是发送有价值的邮件, 通过付费媒体向他们提供完全免费的内容. This could be sending a video on how to improve your golf swing to people who have a deep interest in golf. 这也可以以博客的形式显示 SEO or PPC tactics. 这个博客应该是开放的，它必须提供有价值的内容.
Your next task is to make them aware that there are options for them to consider that will fulfill their need or want. At this point, 你仍然在为他们提供有价值的信息, 虽然你已经从娱乐转向教育他们了. We utilize re-marketing tactics to send more focused and direct content to those who showed an interest in the first level of content. Let’s say the golfer is now aware that they want to improve their golf swing, 但他们不确定这意味着什么. This content should show them that there are solutions to improving their golf swing available to people just like them.
At this stage, you have built up enough equity in the relationship to ask them for permission to talk to them one on one. This typically involves the end-user giving their email in exchange for a valuable piece of gated content that isn’t available to the general public. 这可以是一个网络研讨会，一个pdf文件，一个免费的试用版. Whatever it is, it must be enticing and valuable enough for the end-user to feel comfortable giving their email away. It is in this gated piece of content that you can inform them that your company has a product or service that will uniquely fulfill the need or want that the end-user has. At this point, you both know each other well, and the potential customer is starting to gain trust in you and is even open to considering your offer.
Stage 4, you make an offer, and the customer makes an educated and informed decision to purchase. There will be those end-users that have finally found what they were looking for and move forward through the process rapidly, 自己决定是否购买. 对于那些需要被灌输这个决定的人, 欧博体育首页可以给他们提供不那么吓人的交易, 这将减少购买的心理障碍.
电子邮件营销已经被证明是一个持续的领导者 eCommerce sales. Communicating offers with your potential customers through email is an effective way to present these types of sales. 欧博体育首页还对那些表现出兴趣的人进行再营销, 甚至可能装满了他们的购物车，但在付款时就放弃了.
Stage 5 – Ambassador
Congrats, you have successfully mobilized a cold prospect into a paying customer. But don’t forget about one of the most important stages, stage 5, or the ambassador stage. 你的终极目标应该是让你的品牌成为超级粉丝, 那些在屋顶上公开无耻地谈论你的人. 人们会回来购买更多你的产品, 告诉别人你的产品是最好的产品.
Ascending a paying customer isn’t just a next step of the process, it requires superior service and content strategy throughout the entire funnel. 当消费者感觉与某个组织有关联时, 他们更有可能成为超级粉丝. Consumers who make it to this stage typically felt well cared for and nourished throughout their buying journey. 这是一段健康关系的顶点.
并不是所有的客户都是从这个漏斗的顶端进入的, and not all need to be carefully guided through each phase of the Buyer’s Journey. The reality is, 您将拥有自己跳过各个阶段的用户, 因为他们已经知道自己在寻找什么了. Of course, there will be consumers that do need all of your energy and attention in order to complete the buyer’s journey. The most important aspect then is to stay, consistent, transparent and genuine in your digital marketing strategy and tactics, 确保无论消费者进入到哪里，都能进入购买者的旅程, 他们得到了前进所需要的东西.
It is imperative that you are cognizant of where each prospect is along the journey, and that you understand the type of content that is appropriate for that stage of the buyer’s journey. You don’t want to send a bottom of funnel offer to a top of funnel cold prospect, and vis-versa. 跳过阶段会失去潜在的长期客户. As we said before, 建立持久的关系没有捷径, and that holds true for the relationship between the buyer and the organization.